By Michael Ferber

This is often the 1st dictionary of symbols to be according to literature, instead of 'universal' mental archetypes or myths. It explains and illustrates the literary symbols that all of us usually stumble upon (such as swan, rose, moon, gold), and provides hundreds of thousands of cross-references and quotations. The dictionary concentrates on English literature, yet its entries variety extensively from the Bible and classical authors to the 20 th century, taking in American and eu literatures. For this re-creation, Michael Ferber has integrated over twenty thoroughly new entries (including undergo, holly, sunflower and tower), and has extra to a number of the current entries. Enlarged and enriched from the 1st variation, its expert sort and wealthy references make this e-book a vital device not just for literary and classical students, yet for all scholars of literature.

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In his pastoral ‘‘Summer’’ Pope addresses ‘‘Ye shady beeches, and ye cooling Streams, / Defence from Phoebus’, not from Cupid’s beams’’ (13--14). Shelley called the beech ‘‘to lovers dear’’ (Orpheus 111). The Greek phagos (or phegos), though cognate with Latin fagus, refers to the oak, also welcome for its shade; cf. 8. The word ‘‘beech’’ itself is also cognate with fagus. 9) Spenser lists the ‘‘warlike Beech,’’ perhaps because beechwood is hard and useful for weapons. It is not listed in his main source, the catalogue of trees in Chaucer’s Parliament of Fowls 176--82.

4). In Epipsychidion, addressed to a young woman confined to a convent until her marriage, Shelley calls her ‘‘Poor captive bird! who, from thy narrow cage, / Pourest such music, that it might assuage / The rugged hearts of those who prisoned thee, / Were they not deaf to all sweet melody’’ (5--8). In Aurora Leigh, E. B. 304--07). P. L. ’’ The killing of a bird might be a great sin, as it seems to be in Coleridge’s ‘‘Rime of the Ancient Mariner’’; or it might symbolize the death of a person, as the wild duck in Ibsen’s play is linked to Hedvig, who kills herself, or as the seagull in Chekhov’s play is associated with Nina, who is seduced and abandoned by the man who has killed the gull.

136). ’’ In the seventeenth and eighteenth century ‘‘spleen’’ tended to mean ‘‘dejection’’ or ‘‘melancholy,’’ but with a connotation of oversensitivity or deliberate posturing. 7). It soon seemed to afflict the English more than anyone else. ’’ The French equivalent was ennui, borrowed by English, though it is less intense than spleen, closer to boredom or world-weariness. 805--08). , ‘‘Le Spleen’’). 1--5). See Humor, Liver, Melancholy, Yellow. Bird The symbolism of birds is sometimes metonymical in origin, as when larks represent dawn and nightingales night, or swallows and cuckoos stand for the arrival of spring, because the birds belong to these phenomena.

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