By Zev Levin, William R. Cotton

This ebook experiences present wisdom at the courting among aerosols and precipitation achieving the Earth's floor. It encompasses a record of concepts that can support to farther improve wisdom during this area.

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Additional resources for Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation A Scientific Review

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Certain particles in the air also serve as centers upon which ice can form directly from the vapour phase. These particles are referred to as deposition nuclei. Ice can form by deposition provided that the air is supersaturated with respect to ice and the temperature is low enough. If the air is supersaturated with respect to water, a suitable particle may serve either as a condensationfreezing nucleus (in which case liquid water first condenses onto the particle and subsequently freezes) or as a deposition nucleus (in which case there is no intermediate liquid phase, at least on the macroscopic scale).

5 g kgÀ1). c) Forced lifting of air as it passes over hills or mountains to produce orographic clouds. Updraft velocities depend upon the speed and direction of the wind and the height of the barrier, they can be several meters per second. Water contents are typically a few tenths of a gram per cubic meter of air, depending upon the altitude at which the air enters the cloud upwind and its maximum altitude above the mountain top. Orographic clouds may be quite transitory, but if winds are steady they may last for many hours.

Barrie et al. sociological, environmental and health impacts. It is recommended that WMO/ IUGG, together with other UN, international and national organizations, participate in designing field studies such as the following:  Indian subcontinent: document changes in precipitation in an evolving industrial economy dominated by the Indian Monsoon  China: document changes in precipitation in an evolving industrial economy  Amazonia: a history of biomass burning in Amazonia with simultaneous research studies  Influence of Saharan Dust and biomass burning on the African monsoon  Atlantic tropical storms development: testing the effects on storm development and the accompanying effects on precipitation  Volcanic eruptions: investigate the massive perturbations of climate and general circulation through aerosols.

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