By Перекальская Т.К., Выгонская Л.Н. (ред.)

Учебное пособие ставит своей задачей формирование навыков научной коммуникации на английском языке с целью оптимизации лингвистического сообщения и предназначено для студентов и аспирантов механико-математического факультета МГУ.

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In these studies such social psychological dimensions as the relationship between speaker and listener have been given little consideration. The extent to which these and other social psychological factors play a role in the identification of speakers' intentions is examined in the next section. 2 Social Psychological Factors in Intentionalist Models Social psychologists have long been aware of the impact of social factors on language comprehension. Nearly 50 years ago, Solomon Asch (1946) demonstrated that the same message, attributed to different sources (Vladimir Lenin or Thomas Jefferson), would be interpreted quite differently.

In an attempt to specify some of the components of another's perspective relevant to the psychology of language and communication, Krauss and Fussell (1988) included: (a) background knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes; (b) current interpretations of stimuli and events; (c) plans, goals, and attitudes; (d) social context; and (e) physical context. Other personal attributes can be added to this list, including speech style, emotional state, and importantly, the other's current state of message comprehension.

The state of affairs may be a singular object (a particular dog), a category of objects (German shepherds), an abstract concept (justice), a feeling, or some other specifiable thing. Although reference is arguably the most elementary linguistic act, it underlies most of the more complicated purposes to which language is put. In order to perform an act of reference, a speaker must formulate a referring expression — a word or phrase that will permit the addressee to identify the referent. In his classic essay, "How shall a thing be called" Brown (1958) noted the remarkable cognitive Models of Interpersonal Communication page 56 complexity that underlies a successful act of reference.

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