International battle i used to be a watershed in sleek international background. at the battlefield, hundreds of thousands have been slaughtered by way of chemical conflict, computing device weapons, and trench warfare—and this mindless bloodletting continues to be the main enduring legacy of the good struggle. severe to figuring out the war’s value is the often-overlooked emergence of a “modern” dynamic grassroots peace flow that either adversarial battle and sought to abolish its social causes.

Edited by means of Scott H. Bennett and Charles F. Howlett, Antiwar Dissent and Peace Activism in international struggle I the United States offers basic files, such a lot anthologized for the 1st time, illustrating competition and resistance to the warfare and the government’s efforts to advertise the battle and limit dissent. This clean assortment highlights the extensive diversity of antiwar sentiment: spiritual and secular, liberal and radical, pacifist and nonpacifist, together with conscientious objection. It additionally addresses key concerns raised by way of the antiwar movement—particularly dissent in wartime, civil liberties, the that means of patriotism, and citizen peace activism—that stay important to realizing American democracy.

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This left 4,000 cos who retained Introduction . 15 their convictions. Of these 4,000, 1,300 agreed to perform noncombatant jobs in the military, mainly in the Medical Corps; another 1,300 accepted civilian farmwork; and 940 remained in military training camps. Another 450 absolutists, who refused to cooperate with Selective Service officials, military officers, and procedures, were courtmartialed and sent to military prisons. S. Disciplinary Barracks (Kansas), Alcatraz Island (California), Fort Jay (New York), and Fort Douglas (Utah).

27 enlisted women, reformers, and radicals with a more secular impulse and progressive agenda. S. women’s peace movement. In April 1915 the Woman’s Peace Party, along with more than a thousand delegates from neutral and belligerent nations, participated in the International Women’s Congress for Peace and Freedom in The Hague. The Hague meeting created the International Committee of Women for Permanent Peace and named Woman’s Peace Party leader Jane Addams president. The Woman’s Peace Party became the American Section of the icwpp.

The War Diary of a Conscientious Objector (New York: John Day, 1930), 43–44. 22. See transcripts of court-martial trials of Peter Heppner (General Conference Mennonite, 28 May 1918) and Austin Hewett (5 April 1918), Case Files of Con34 . , 1917–1919, reel 272, Mennonite Library and Archives, Bethel College, North Newton ks, taken from Anne M. Yoder, “Conscientious Objection during the Great War: A Documentary History through Personal Writings and Testimony” (unpublished manuscript, 2010). We are indebted to Anne Yoder, Swarthmore College Peace Collection, who provided the Heppner and Hewitt documents.

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