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67) is used, where θ(x) is the Heavyside step function. Since Eq. 66) cannot be solved exactly usually some truncation is applied. A standard truncation is the derivative expansion [Berges et al. (2002a)], in which Γk is expanded as a power series of ∇ and ∂t . The local potential approximation (LPA) — which is the simplest such truncation — keeps only a potential term in Γk while neglects any field renormalization: ΓLPA = k x,t Uk (φ, ψ) + ψ(∂t − D∇2 )φ . 68) The NPRG equation for the effective potential in LPA, valid for all reactiondiffusion processes involving a single species, has been established in [Canet et al.

These invariants and flows are related to those of the the topological phase spaces of the RD models discussed in Sect. 1. 71) with a Gaussian white noise, described by the correlations: < η(x, t) >= 0, < η(x, t)η(x , t ) >= −Γφ2 δ d (x − x )δ(t − t ) . 72) Here δ denotes the Dirac delta functional and Γ is the noise amplitude, so the noise disappears for zero density but is imaginary causing complex solution. 71) is just the diffusive mean-field equation supplemented with a stochastic noise. In case of general reactions — if the Langevin equation can be deduced — the noise term can be a more complex function.

38) for the survival probability. 47) as t → ∞. Hence F (0, y) ∼ y β+β which entails Eq. 45). 45) 2δ + η = z/2 . 48) April 4, 2008 9:14 12 World Scientific Book - 9in x 6in universality Universality in Nonequilibrium Lattice Systems In the absorbing phase ρ(r, t) is expected to decrease exponentially as ρ(r, t) ∝ exp(−r/ξ) usually. 49) where C > 0 is constant. e. the dynamical exponent of the model is related to the cluster spearing exponents of its components. In some anisotropic system (see exam´ ple Sect.

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